An alignment tax (sometimes called a safety tax) is the extra cost of ensuring that an AI system is aligned, relative to the cost of building an unaligned alternative. The term ‘tax’ can be misleading: in the safety literature, ‘alignment/safety tax’ or ‘alignment cost’ is meant to refer to increased developer time, extra compute, or decreased performance, and not only to the financial cost/tax required to build an aligned system.
In order to get a better idea of what the alignment tax is, consider the cases that lie at the edges. The best case scenario is No Tax: This means we lose no performance by aligning the system, so there is no reason to deploy an AI that is not aligned, i.e., we might as well align it. The worst case scenario is Max Tax: This means that we lose all performance by aligning the system, so alignment is functionally impossible. So you either deploy an unaligned system, or you don’t get any benefit from AI systems at all. We expect something in between these two scenarios to be the case.